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Scope
Scope Pollution

It may seem like a great idea to always make your variables accessible, but having too many global variables can cause problems in a program.

When you declare global variables, they go to the global namespace. The global namespace allows the variables to be accessible from anywhere in the program. These variables remain there until the program finishes which means our global namespace can fill up really quickly.

Scope pollution is when we have too many global variables that exist in the global namespace, or when we reuse variables across different scopes. Scope pollution makes it difficult to keep track of our different variables and sets us up for potential accidents. For example, globally scoped variables can collide with other variables that are more locally scoped, causing unexpected behavior in our code.

Let’s look at an example of scope pollution in practice so we know how to avoid it:

let num = 50; const logNum = () => { num = 100; // Take note of this line of code console.log(num); }; logNum(); // Prints 100 console.log(num); // Prints 100

You’ll notice:

  • We have a variable num.
  • Inside the function body of logNum(), we want to declare a new variable but forgot to use the let keyword.
  • When we call logNum(), num gets reassigned to 100.
  • The reassignment inside logNum() affects the global variable num.
  • Even though the reassignment is allowed and we won’t get an error, if we decided to use num later, we’ll unknowingly use the new value of num.

While it’s important to know what global scope is, it’s best practice to not define variables in the global scope.

Instructions

1.

Let’s see what happens if we create a variable that overwrites a global variable.

Inside the callMyNightSky() function, on the very first line of the function body, assign the variable stars to 'Sirius' as such:

stars = 'Sirius';
2.

Outside the function, under the current console.log() statement, add another console.log() statement to log stars to the console.

You’ll notice that the global variable stars was reassigned to 'Sirius'. In other words, we changed the value of the global stars variable but it’s not easy to read what exactly happened. This is bad practice in code maintainability and could impact our program in ways we do not intend.

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