Reference Fundamentals
Arrays of References

We know that we can use inherited classes and implemented interfaces to reference an object:

Dissertation diss = new Dissertation(50); IFlippable fdiss = diss;

This allows to work with many similar types at the same time. Imagine if we didn’t have this feature and we had to “flip” a group of Diary and Dissertation types:

Diary dy1 = new Diary(1); Diary dy2 = new Diary(30); Dissertation diss1 = new Dissertation(50); Dissertation diss2 = new Dissertation(49); dy1.Flip(); dy2.Flip(); diss1.Flip(); diss2.Flip();

Look at all that code! It would be faster and safer if we could store the references in an array and loop through it. But would it be an array of Diary[] or an array of Dissertation[] or something else? Since both dissertations and diaries are flippable (they both implement the IFlippable interface), we can create references to them as IFlippables:

IFlippable f1 = new Diary(1); IFlippable f2 = new Diary(30); IFlippable f3 = new Dissertation(50); IFlippable f4 = new Dissertation(49);

Instead of dealing with individual variables, we can use an array of IFlippable references:

IFlippable[] classroom = new IFlippable[] { new Diary(1), new Diary(30), new Dissertation(50), new Dissertation(49) };

Then to “flip” each element, we can write a foreach loop:

foreach (IFlippable f in classroom) { f.Flip(); }

We can only access the functionality defined in the interface. For example, we couldn’t access f.Title because Title isn’t a property defined in IFlippable.



Create a variable books of type Book[] that contains diss1, diss2, dy1, and dy2.


Make an empty foreach loop that loops through each element in the array.


In the body of the loop, print out the Title of each element.

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