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CSS Setup and Selectors

Specificity is the order by which the browser decides which CSS styles will be displayed. A best practice in CSS is to style elements while using the lowest degree of specificity, so that if an element needs a new style, it is easy to override.

IDs are the most specific selector in CSS, followed by classes, and finally, tags. For example, consider the following HTML and CSS:

<h1 class="headline">Breaking News</h1>
h1 { color: red; } .headline { color: firebrick; }

In the example code above, the color of the heading would be set to firebrick, as the class selector is more specific than the tag selector. If an ID attribute (and selector) were added to the code above, the styles within the ID selector’s body would override all other styles for the heading. The only way to override an ID is to add another ID with additional styling.

Over time, as files grow with code, many elements may have IDs, which can make CSS difficult to edit, since a new, more specific style must be created to change the style of an element.

To make styles easy to edit, it’s best to style with a tag selector, if possible. If not, add a class selector. If that is not specific enough, then consider using an ID selector.



In index.html, the element on line 11 has an h1 tag, two classes, and an ID. Since the ID is more specific than both, its styles will be applied to the element. Let’s re-write the ID of this element to be less specific by creating classes.

In index.html, delete the id attribute on the h1 element on line 11.


Now delete the #article-title ID in the CSS.

Navigate to style.css delete the #article-id ID selector and its contents.


Navigate to style.css. Add a class selector named .cursive. Inside its body, write:

font-family: cursive;

Add another class selector named .capitalize. In its curly braces, write:

text-transform: capitalize;

Now, navigate back to index.html, and replace the uppercase class with the cursive and capitalize classes on the h1 element on line 11.

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